Document Type : researcher


1 Allameh Tabatabaei University

2 Laboratoire PRIM, Université de Tours , France


The primary objective of this study is to compare the cognitive effects of a message on the audience in three formats: video, text, and multimedia. Using quota sampling, we selected 204 participants, including 102 men and 102 women, across different age groups (young, middle-aged, and elderly). Each participant completed a questionnaire divided into two sections, one focusing on knowledge and the other on emotion, immediately after receiving the message.
The research findings across all three formats consistently indicate that women experienced higher levels of emotional arousal compared to men when exposed to media messages. Additionally, in terms of knowledge transfer, women consistently outperformed men in all sample groups. Regarding sensory affectivity, encompassing five negative emotions—anger, fear, anxiety, hatred, and pity—the arousal of hatred was consistently higher in all three formats.
The results also demonstrated significant correlations between the age group variable and sensitivity levels, as well as between the gender variable and sensitivity levels. Notably, parents were more affected by the messages compared to non-parents. However, there was no significant correlation between sensory and cognitive affectivity and the video format. Interestingly, in both knowledge transfer and emotional motivation, the video format demonstrated the most significant impact compared to the other two formats."


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